Store-and-forward Fax

Store-and-forward fax on IP networks operates like email and so can deliver to servers or remote fax.

T37 is the ITU standard for store-and-forward fax transmissions.So a fax is converted into a TIFF attachment and sent to the network (it is the onramp gateway).Then the TIFF is sent to a server or an offramp gateway.

Real-Time Fax

Real-time fax over IP operates in a similar way of a regular fax transmission. The fax machines involved in the transmission synch up and then the fax data is sent between them over the intervening IP Network.

There are 2 methods of transporting fax in real time across the network:



When using fax-relay, the T30 fax signal from a connected fax machine is demodulated by the sending fax gateway and sent over the IP Network to a remote fax gateway. The remote fax gateway then recontructs the T30 fax signal and send it to the fax.

There are 2 types of fax-relay mechanisms:

Cisco fax-relay

T38 fax-relay

Cisco fax-relay is an older method. So a fax gateway terminates T30 fax tones from a local fax machine and then sends the fax data across an IP network by breaking the tones into HDLC frames and then transmitting them using RTP.

T38 fax-relay is the ITU standard T30 fax signal, it is demodulated at the local gateway and encapsulated into IP packets for transport over a network to a remote fax gateway which will then reconstruct the signal and play it to the fax. T38 includes also a mechanism by which a fax gateway can inform the remote gateway of its desire to change the media type from voice to data. T38 can also use TCP or UDP connections but will use more UDP.

For fax pass-through, modulated fax data is sent in-band across the IP network by a fax gateway using a voice codec (like G711 without any VAD or echo-cancellation). Also with fax pass-through, T30 fax calls are not distinguished from regular voice calls, they are simply sent in-band over the IP Network. With the fax detection tones, the gateway must be able then to switch to high-bandwidth codec. Fax pass-through is relatively bandwidth hungry and is sensitive to delay,jitter and packet loss


Call Manager 4.X supports video calls between SCCP and H323 endpoints. Call Manager can support point-to-point video calls between endpoints and if you want to enable the conferencing features then you need to use a Multioint Control Unit (MCU).

Standard voice point-to-point calss involve two RTP streams, and video calls can involve up to six streams. 2 RTP streams for Audio, 2 RTP streams for Video and 2 RTP streams fro Far End Camera Control (FECC) (used for security purposes).

The different video codec are :

  • H261 : ITU standard which operates between 40 Kbps and 2Mbps and supports CIF 352 x 288 or Quarter CIF – QCIF 176 x 144
  • H263 : It is a low bitrate codec used for SIP and H323 networks (MPEG-1 and MPEG-2)
  • H264 : is a great improvement over H263, it is also known as MPEG-4 and Advanced Video Coding (AVC). It permits also the compression of the video in a distinctive way.
  • Cisco proprietary wideband

Inline Power : Cisco and 802.3af

There are 3 ways to power up a device:

The external power supply unit

Power over Ethernet (PoE) from a switch

A Midspan power injector/inline power patch panel (a device that sits between a switch and an IP Phone)

Both the Cisco proprietary and IEEE 802.3af provide power to connected devices over switch port pins 1,2,3,6. When using midspan power injectors/inine power patch panels, power is sent to the connected device using pins 4,5,6,7

Reminder : For the Cisco proprietary method, the switch sees a coming back FLP and for 802.3af, the switch see a resistance of 25K ohms on a voltage applied (-2,8 to -10V)

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